(*Editor's note *: **Power Tips ** is an ongoing series; to see a linked list of __all__ entries from #1 to the latest one, click **here**.)

With many central processing units (CPUs), specifications require that the power supply must be capable of providing large, rapidly changing output currents, typically as the processor changes operating modes.

For instance, in a 1-volt system, the requirement may be to stabilize the supply voltage within three percent for a 100 A/µsec load transient. The key to attacking this problem is to realize that this is not just a power supply problem but a power distribution system problem as well, and the two become intertwined in the solution.

The implication of these high di/dt requirements is that the voltage source must have very low inductance. Rearranging the following expression and solving for the allowable source inductance:

There can be only 0.3 nH of inductance in the path of the rapid load-current transient. For comparison, the inductance of a 0.1 inch-wide (0.25 cm) circuit-board trace on a four-layer board has an inductance of about 0.7 nH/inch (0.3 nH/cm). The typical inductance of a wire bond within an IC package is in the 1 nH range, and vias in a printed circuit board are in the 0.2 nH range.

There also is a series inductance associated with bypass capacitors as illustrated in **Figure 1 **. The top curve is the impedance of a single 22 µF, X5R, 16V, 1210 ceramic capacitor mounted on a four-layer circuit board.

*Figure 1: Parasitics in parallel capacitors impedance *

*diminish effectiveness. *

*(Click here for enlarged image) *

As expected, below 100 kHz, the impedance drops with increasing frequency. However, there is a series resonance at 800 kHz where the capacitor begins to turn inductive. The inductance, which can be calculated from the value of the capacitor and the resonant frequency, is equal to 1.7